quran-e-hakim.com

My reversion to Islam - in detail

Appearing below are details about my reversion to Islam. I have published them before but took the page down because I wanted to rewrite it. Unfortunately, my computer - like me - is getting old and isn't quite up to the mark. 

It's all but impossible to lay pages and rewrite text so until I buy a new computer a lot of the work I want to do must wait. I've also been very ill and that has impacted on my ability to work on my websites.

However, recently somebody expressed interest in my reversion so I have posted below the old text that I have published in the past. It still needs rewriting as do many of the other pages I published on my former site, but it will suffice for the time being.

I am aware that some of the material in the opening paragraphs is already covered on the page 'My reversion to Islam - in brief' but rather than try to edit the text I have let it stand so I can review it properly later.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS PAGE HAS NOT BEEN PROOFED. IF ANYONE NOTICES ANY MISTAKES COULD THEY PLEASE CONTACT ME AT ianccalderwood@gmail.com.

MY STORY - OR SOME OF IT - ABOUT MY REVERSION TO ISLAM

My name is Ian Charles Calderwood.  I was born in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia, on the 11th of January 1946, but was raised in Melbourne.
I reverted to Islam as a Sunni Muslim who follows the Hanafi Mazhab (School)in Melbourne in 1983. And this is my story - or some of it - of why I became a Muslim.
Before proceeding with my background I want to note that after I reverted to Islam I changed my name on the 28th of October 1984 by Deed Poll in Melbourne from Ian Charles Calderwood to Yahya Abdullah. I lived in Pakistan under that name from April 1985 and returned to Melbourne in September 1990.
A copy of the Deed Poll can be seen at DEED POLL CALDERWOOD TO ABDULLAH. It is a submenu of the page headed PERSONAL DOCUMENTS.
For details about my stay in Pakistan see my page headed 'Living in Pakistan'.
For personal reasons I reverted to my former name of Ian Charles Calderwood on the 12th of March 1992. I did so by Change of Name Registration.
The Victorian Government had abolished Deed Polls in October 1986 and introduced a Change of Name Registration form.
Details about the abolition of Deed Polls and the change of name registration system can be found on the Births, Deaths and Marriages Victoria website. The link is Homepage | Births Deaths and Marriages Victoria (bdm.vic.gov.au) .
The Law Handbook 1996, published by the Fitzroy Legal Service, also explains on Page 324 that Deed Polls were abolished in Victoria effective from the 01st of November 1986. It notes: “While you may use a deed poll as evidence of a change of name, you cannot now use a deed poll to administratively register a change of name. With effect from 1 November 1986, a change of name can only be registered by making an application to the Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages on the prescribed form . . .”
The Fitzroy Legal Service has provided invaluable support to the disadvantaged in Victoria over the years. The link to the service is Fitzroy Legal Service – Fitzroy Legal Service (fls.org.au).
A copy of the relevant page about deed polls can be found under Law Handbook 1996 Deed Poll – 4.
A copy of my Change of Name Registration form can be see at CHANGE OF NAME ABDULLAH TO CALDERWOOD. The page is a submenu of the page headed PERSONAL DOCUMENTS.
My father had worked in administration at BHP in Newcastle during World War Two but had ambitions to be a public accountant. In those days Melbourne was the financial centre of Australia so he moved us all there – my mother, my sister and me - in 1949.
My family were practising Christians, not just Christians in name only. We regularly attended the Church of England, as it was called when I was young. I was raised to believe in the Trinity and taught to recite the Nicene Creed – the affirmation that you believed in the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. For my thoughts on the Trinity and the Nicene Creed see my page headed ‘The Trinity – a false doctrine’.
I was confirmed in the Church at the age of about 12 and regularly attended with my parents and sister.
Sadly, my parents separated when I was about 14 years old. My father, who by then was known as a brilliant consulting accountant, was an alcoholic and an adulterer. When they separated I went with my mother, a decent, chaste, loving woman, a good mother to me and my sister, whom I believed had been wronged.
PARENTS MARRIAGE FAILS
The separation which ended in divorce triggered a lot of emotional turmoil in me about Christianity. I was already struggling to grasp the Trinity – a doctrine that to my way of thinking was suspect – but to witness my father’s hypocrisy only exacerbated the matter.
At one stage my mother, who dearly loved my father, went to see the minister at St John’s, Camberwell, where we had worshipped for years and complained about my father’s drinking and adultery. He was not interested and rejected her complaints.
I recall my mother coming home bitterly disappointed by the vicar’s attitude.
My father, an affluent man, regularly donated to the church and I do not doubt that influenced the minister.
Dad’s support for the church was far-reaching and when St John’s was rebuilt after a fire in 1955 he paid for one of the new stained glass windows. A costly affair.
Such is the way of the world. You can sin against God – commit adultery, spurn your wife and children, drink beyond reason – and as far as some men of the cloth are concerned it is of no account providing you pay with hard, cold cash.
The breakdown in my parents’ marriage and consequent clashes with my father proved to be catalysts that drove me away from the Church. That break influenced me profoundly and I went from being an innocent choirboy who believed in God to eventually being a renegade who knew only too well some of the darkest paths in life.
As I grew older my dissolute, rebellious behaviour went beyond the pale and in the late 1960s and early 1970s I found myself blundering from one crisis to another. Like my father I too drank whisky. Like him it made me quarrelsome, argumentative. There's nothing worse than a nasty drunk.
I had seen my father drink a bottle of whisky in a night and then get up and hit the port in the morning. I found myself heading down the same path.
In about 1968 – I cannot be certain of the year now because at the time I did not place any great weight upon the matter – I had a dream in which I saw the word EL, two large block letters made out of stone, blazing fiercely in the sky. The stone was grey, like granite.
The dream was so vivid, so confronting, that I awoke with a start. My mother had come to stay with me – I was renting a flat in St. Kilda Rd. - so I rushed into her room and woke her. I cannot remember my exact words but in effect I asked her ‘what does EL mean?’ Sleepily she replied that she didn’t know.
At the time I associated the dream with God. My heart kept saying ‘it’s God’ but my head couldn’t handle that and instead of pursuing the dream and turning back to Him I ignored it.
I believe that rejection was my final undoing and as the years came to pass in the 1970s I found myself beset with problems that began to spiral out of control.
There are verses in the Holy Qur’an in which Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) warns against ignoring his Signs. If you do, you do so at your own peril. By ignoring the dream I had done just that.
I won’t elaborate on the years that followed the dream except to say that my problems escalated and eventually in the mid-1970s I found myself in despair. I then recalled my youth – my belief in God – and realised I needed Him now more than ever before.
RETURN TO GOD
As a result I tried to turn back to Him, to abandon my immoral, wild behaviour and find once again that God whom I had once so strongly believed in.
But, it was not so easy. I tried going to church, but to no avail. I simply didn’t believe in the Trinity. I believed that Jesus (alayhi as-salam – may the peace of Allah be upon him) was a man and a Prophet, the Messiah, I accepted all of that, but there was no way that I believed he was God. For my reasons why I reject the Trinity see my page headed ‘The Trinity - a false doctrine’. 
On the few occasions that I did attend church I found myself unable to concentrate, to take part in the service, and eventually I gave up trying to return to Christianity. 
Since I had been a young teenager I had regularly gone to the State Library Victoria in Swanston Street, Melbourne, to read. I loved to study and used to browse the shelves looking for books of interest.
It was my quest to find the right path in religion that led me back to the library to try to research the subject. ‘What is the best path for me to take,’ I asked myself.
I read various works, including a desultory glance at the Mormons – a glance that left me cold and feeling utterly disillusioned. I then started to read about Judaism, a religion which I felt an affinity with. As a child I loved the Old Testament. I rarely read the New Testament.
It was that empathy with Judaism that led me to look at various titles, among them being a Hebrew to English dictionary. Casually glancing through the pages my eyes fell upon the word EL. And then I remembered the dream. I had forgotten about it for years.
SIGNIFICANCE OF DREAM
The revelation shook me. At the time of the dream I had associated it with God, but only now, seeing the word in the dictionary, did it hit home that my dream was from the Lord of the Worlds, the God of the Old Testament known not only to the Israelites, but among other peoples of the ancient world.
EL simply means God. It was a word not only used by the Israelites, but by others such as the Canaanites, but the latter used it to describe their chief god and associated partners with him. In Islam it is strictly forbidden to associate partners with Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) and to do so constitutes disbelief.
Finding the dictionary and realising the significance of the dream was a turning point for me, but I still didn’t feel that my quest for the truth was over. So I continued to browse the shelves, strengthened by the discovery that the dream really was meaningful, but still wondering what path I should take.
In doing so I came upon a translation of the Holy Qur’an. I had never really considered Islam as an alternative, but sitting there in that reading room with the great dome soaring magnificently above me I found myself thumbing through the pages and then my eyes fell upon verse 72 in Surah Al-Ma’idah.
I cannot now remember which translation it was, but the relevant verse from Tafsir Ibn Kathir reads:
“Surely, they have disbelieved who say: ‘Allah is the Messiah ['Isa (ED: Jesus)], son of Maryam.’ But the Messiah said: ‘O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.”
In verses 73 and 74 Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High) continues:
“Surely, they have disbelieved who say: ‘Allah is the third of three’. And there is no god but One God (Allah). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them.
“Will they not repent to Allah and ask His Forgiveness? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
In verse 75 Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High) emphasizes that ‘Isa (Jesus) (alayhi as-salam – may the peace of Allah be upon him) was a man: He says:
“The Messiah ['Isa], son of Maryam, was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam] was a Siddiqah. They both used to eat food. Look how We make the Ayat clear to them; yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth).” (Ibn Kathir, 2003, p. 234) [1]
Commenting on the above verses Ibn Kathir wrote: “Allah states that the Christians, such sects as Monarchite, Jacobite and Nestorite, are disbelievers, those among them who say that ‘Isa is Allah.
“Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. They made this claim in spite of the fact that ‘Isa made it known that he was the servant of Allah and His Messenger.
“The first words that ‘Isa uttered when he was still a baby in the cradle were, ‘I am Abdullah (the servant of Allah)’. He did not say, ‘I am Allah’ or ‘I am the son of Allah’. Rather he said,
‘Verily, I am a servant of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet.’
“Until he said,
 ‘And verily Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him (Alone). That is the straight path.’  (Ibn Kathir, 2003, pp. 234-235) [2]
The above verses quoted by Ibn Kathir, namely:
·         ‘Verily, I am a servant of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet’
·         ‘And verily Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him (Alone). That is the straight path’
are from Surah Maryam, verses 30 and 36 respectively.
ISLAM STRAIGHT PATH
Discovering the verses in the Holy Qur’an denouncing the Trinity reinforced my conviction that the doctrine of the Trinity was false and as a result in 1977 I bought translations of the Qur’an so I could read it at home at my leisure.
In doing so I was impressed and felt it echoed the sentiments I had found in the Old Testament as a child, of an awesome God, powerful and just, but also benevolent. A friend and protector.
I didn’t read the work from cover to cover, but read pages here, verses there, always feeling I had come upon what I had been looking for.
But, then the doubts started to creep in. Was I misled? Perhaps it was the work of some scribe who had compiled it from Christian and Judaic sources; perhaps it was a sham, a forgery of some description.
So I began to wonder, the doubts within eating away at my initial conviction that I had found the truth, mulling over whether or not it really was the Word of God or it was a fake.
The problem was I didn’t know anyone I could turn to for advice. I didn’t know any Muslims, nor Arabic scholars, who could guide me. Perplexed, I pondered what to do and then I realised that the one who knew was God and I resolved to ask Him if the Qur’an was His book.
But, then the question was ‘how do I address Him’? Obviously I wasn’t going to call Him Jesus (may peace be upon him) because I didn’t believe Jesus (may peace be upon him) was God nor did I wish to address Him as God – I felt it was impersonal, distant – I needed to be able to turn to somebody I felt loved me; somebody I could trust to guide me.
So I decided to address Him as ‘EL’ because it was the dream that had turned those printed pages of the Old Testament that I had read as a child into a reality. The living God who cared.
QURAISH
And my prayer was ‘EL is this Qur’an your book?’
I had barely completed the prayer when I felt something moving inside me. It was coming up through my chest from somewhere deep within. I felt it was something physical, tangible; rectangular in shape.
And to my astonishment it came into my mind and it was a word and the word was ‘Quraish’.
I was stunned and sat musing, with my head saying ‘what does Quraish mean’ and my heart saying ‘it’s in the Qur’an, it’s in the Qur’an’.
So I turned to the translations and searched for the word and found it. It was the title of the 106th chapter of the Qur’an. I hadn’t read it previously, but did so then.
And this is what it said: [3] (Shafi, 2008, p. 885)
Surah Al-Quraish (The Quraish)
1.      Because of the familiarity of the Quraish,
2.      That is their familiarity with the trips of winter and summer,
3.      They must worship the Lord of this House,
4.      Who gave them food against hunger, and gave them security against fear.
Reading the verse, I realised ‘EL’ had answered my prayer. I understood that the verse ‘They must worship the Lord of this House,’ meant He wanted me to worship Him – Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High).
Such a revelation - or inspiration if you like to call it that - is called a ‘wahy’ in Arabic and in my case it was confirmation from Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High) that the Qur’an was authentic – His Word.
As a result, from then on I believed that the Qur’an was the truth, the Word of God and I was set on a straight path that eventually led me to embracing Islam in 1983 as a Sunni Muslim who followed the Hanafi School.
On occasions I have told people the truth about the ‘wahy’ and it is obvious in a few instances there have been misunderstandings. I want to stress that the inspiration I had in 1977 was about the Qur’an, it was not about any translation of that Holy text.
The Qur’an is only the Qur’an in Arabic – no translation or interpretation of the Qur’an can replace the original Arabic text, nor do it justice.
The reason why there was such a long time between the Wahy in 1977 and my embracing of Islam in 1983 was because of my personality, my nature. During the late 1970s I wanted to be alone and shunned other people’s company and even today I tend to be reclusive. I like being alone with Him.
Aside from going to work and basics, such as going shopping, I had little to do with other people and didn’t go to the mosque nor mix in the Muslim community.
However, because of my wish to be alone, my failure to mix in the Muslim community I did not practise Islam correctly and did not begin to do so until I recited the first Kalimah – ‘La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasoolullah’ [there is no god but Allah and Muhammad (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is his Messenger] in 1983.
It is true that after I had the Wahy in 1977 I described myself as a Muslim – I sincerely believed in the heart that Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High) was the one and only God.
I made the claim with the utmost sincerity and it certainly had nothing to do with me holding any heretical beliefs, such as those espoused by the Qadiyanis or Ahmadis or any other cult.
I am not and have never been a Qadiyani or Ahmadi and have never told anybody that I was. Nor have I ever been a Shia – I have heard that whisper back on a few occasions.
The Qadiyanis or Ahmadis, whatever name you want to call them by, are not Muslims. Indeed anybody who claims that there has been another Prophet after the Prophet Muhammad (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is not a Muslim and to claim otherwise is to reject the teachings of Islam.
As for the Shias, their case is with Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High). I am not qualified to comment upon their affairs.
After I embraced Islam in 1983 as a Sunni Muslim it was explained to me that to be a Muslim it was essential that a person not only believed that Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - Glory be to Him, the Most High) was the one and only God and that Muhammad (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was His Messenger but they also had to recite ‘La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasoolullah’ [there is no god but Allah and Muhammad (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is his Messenger]  with the tongue in Arabic.
As a result from then on, I dated my reversion to Islam from 1983. If anybody is interested in reverting to Islam I suggest they research the subject on www.islamqa.org . There are several articles of interest on the site.
Over the years I have told several people about the dream and the Wahy about the Qur’an but my claims have usually been met with scepticism.
However, I have told the truth and take Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) as my witness that I have done so. Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) is Ash-Shahid (The Witness) and He is also Al-Haqq (The Truth) and never lies.
In Surah Al-Baqarah verse 186 Allah says:
“And when My servants ask you [O Muhammad (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) concerning Me, then answer them], I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.” (Ibn Kathir, 2003, p. 505) [4]
As such if any Muslim is in doubt about my claim to have had the dream or they have doubts that I had the Wahy about the Qur’an, then all he or she has to do is ask Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) whether or not I am telling the truth.
According to Ahadith reported by Ibn Kathir He answers all prayers subject to certain qualifications. (Ibn Kathir, 2003, pp. 505-508) [5]
For example, Ibn Kathir noted the following: “Muslim recorded that the Prophet (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: ‘The supplication of the servant will be accepted as long as he does not supplicate for what includes sin, or cutting the relations of the womb, and as long as he does not become hasty.’ He was asked, O Messenger of Allah! How does one become hasty? He said, ‘He says, I supplicated and supplicated, but I do not see that my supplication is being accepted from me. He thus loses interest and abandons supplicating (to Allah).’ ”
In seeking guidance from Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) a Muslim may do so by performing the Nafl prayer Istikhara (voluntary prayer for guidance) or simply make Dua (supplicate).
In Radiant Prayers by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, the Shaykh recommended reciting the following verse from the Holy Qur’an when seeking guidance by making Dua:
“Our Lord, bless us with mercy from Your own and bless us with right guidance in all our matters.” [Surah Al-Kahf 10] (Taqi Usmani, no date, p. 15)[6]
I highly recommend Radiant Prayers. Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani is the son of the late Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi, the former Grand Mufti of Pakistan. Mufti Muhammad Shafi was the author of an excellent Tafsir called Ma'ariful Qur'an which is available in English in an eight-volume set. 
The website address for Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani is:
Home | Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (muftitaqiusmani.com)
CONCEALING SIGNS
In the past I have not told many people about the dream nor the Wahy about the Qur’an, not only because when I did so my claims were usually treated with doubt, but because I believed I could not use them to spread Islam.
My belief is based upon comments made in the Tafsir, Ma’ariful Qur’an, by the late Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi (rahmatullah alaihi – may the mercy of Allah be upon him) - one of the most highly respected Shaykhs from the Indian Sub-continent.
In Volume 6, pages 94-95, of the English translation of the Tafsir, the learned Shaykh wrote that Wahy [inspirations from Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High)] that were received by ordinary people such as myself could not be used to spread the religion.
He noted: “These inspirations however, are specific to the person to whom they are made and are not meant for (ED: to be made) public or to be used for the propagation of the True Faith.” (Shafi, 2008, pp. 94-95) [7]
See my page headed ‘Wahy’ for details of his comments on the matter.
A copy of Volume 6 of Ma’ariful Qur’an can be downloaded from the following link at the Internet Archive:
https://archive.org/details/EnglishMaarifulQuranMuftiShafiUsmanir.aVol6/page/n1/mode/2up
The question of whether or not I should discuss the dream and the Wahy with other people has confounded me over the years and in recent times I have tried twice to get guidance on the issue from qualified scholars in New South Wales. Unfortunately, such advice has not been forthcoming.
However, I have decided to publish the truth for the following reason.
In the Holy Qur’an Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) says in verses 159 and 160 of Surah Al-Baqarah:
“Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the People in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allah and cursed by the cursers.
“Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare (the truth which they concealed). These, I will accept their repentance. And I am the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.” (Ibn Kathir, 2003, p. 452) [8]
In his commentary on the verses Ibn Kathir wrote:
“These Ayat sternly warn against those who hide the clear signs that the Messengers were sent with which guide to the correct path and beneficial guidance for the hearts, after Allah has made such aspects clear for His servants through the Books that He revealed to His Messengers. . .”
 Ibn Kathir continued:
“A Hadith in the Musnad, narrated through several chains of narrators, that strengthens the overall judgement of the Hadith, states that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger (sall-Allahu alayhi wa-sallam - may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever was asked about knowledge that one has, but he hid it, then a bridle made of fire will be tied around his mouth on the Day of Resurrection.’ [9]
“It is also recorded by Al-Bukhari that Abu Hurayrah said, ‘If it was not for an Ayah in Allah’s Book, I would not have narrated a Hadith for anyone.’ ” [10]
Ibn Kathir then cited the beginning of verse 159 indicating that this is the ayah Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Ta’ala’anhu – may Allah be pleased with him)  is referring to. (Ibn Kathir, 2003, p. 452-453) [11]
FEAR OF ALLAH
In light of verses 159 and 160 and the commentary by Ibn Kathir, especially the Ahadith he has cited from Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Ta’ala’anhu – may Allah be pleased with him) in which it is made clear that the person who conceals knowledge risks being punished by Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) I have decided to publish the truth.
I stress I am only publishing the details of the dream and the Wahy about the Qur’an only out of fear of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High). I read verses 159 and 160 of Surah Al-Baqarah many years ago and upon reading them again recently it occurred to me that they might be relevant to my situation and that it would be prudent for me to tell the truth out of fear of Him. If it wasn’t for my fear of Him, I would not have done so.
They say a Muslim lives between hope and fear – hope of being loved, forgiven and shown mercy by Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala - glory be to Him, the Most High) and fear of His Might and Majesty, His Holiness, His punishment if they err. So, I have told the truth.
In doing so I would like to reiterate that I believe Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi (rahmatullah alaihi – may the mercy of Allah be upon him) was completely correct in stating that inspirations received by ordinary people like me from Allah “are specific to the person to whom they are made and are not meant for (ED: to be made) public or to be used for the propagation of the True Faith”.
As such I believe I cannot use the dream nor the Wahy about the Qur’an to propagate Islam – the straight path of the Sunnis.
 
[1] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 3). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
 
[2] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 3). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
 
[3] Shafi, Maulana Mufti M. (2008) Ma’ariful-Qur’an. (Vol. 8). Karachi, Pakistan: Maktaba-e-Darul-Uloom Karachi.
 
[4] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 1). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
 
[5] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 1). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
 
[6] Taqi Usmani, Mufti M. (no date) Radiant Prayers New Delhi, India, Millat Book Centre.
 
[7] Shafi, Maulana Mufti M. (2008) Ma’ariful-Qur’an. (Vol. 6). Karachi, Pakistan: Maktaba-e-Darul-Uloom Karachi.
 
[8] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 1). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
 
[9] Musnad Ahmad 2:495u
 
[10] Fath Al-Bari 1:258
 
[11] Ibn Kathir. (2003) Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (2nd ed. July 2003) (Vol. 1). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Darussalam.
Ian C. Calderwood:
Newcastle, NSW. 26 January 2022
RESTORED at Lakemba, NSW 2195. 30 October 22